Data from the 1960s and 1970s demonstrate that monosodium glutamate causes hypothalamic damage, endocrine disruption, and behavior disorders when given to immature animals after either subcutaneous (59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81) or oral (67,73,74,76,82,83,84,85,86) doses. 


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60. Olney, J.W. Ho, O.L., and Rhee, V. Cytotoxic effects of acidic and sulphur containing amino acids on the infant mouse central nervous system. Exp Brain Res 14: 61-76, 1971.

61. Olney, J.W., and Sharpe, L.G. Brain lesions in an infant rhesus monkey treated with monosodium glutamate. Science166: 386-388, 1969.

62. Snapir, N., Robinzon, B., and Perek, M. Brain damage in the male domestic fowl treated with monosodium glutamate.Poult Sci 50: 1511-1514, 1971.

63. Perez, V.J. and Olney, J.W. Accumulation of glutamic acid in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of the infant mouse following subcutaneous administration of monosodium glutamate. J Neurochem 19: 1777-1782, 1972.

64. Arees, E.A., and Mayer, J. Monosodium glutamate-nduced brain lesions: electron microscopic examination. Science 170: 549-550, 1970.

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67. Olney, J.W. Glutamate-induced neuronal necrosis in the infant mouse hypothalamus. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 30: 75-90, 1971.


68. Lamperti, A., and Blaha, G. The effects of neonatally-administered monosodium glutamate on the reproductive system of adult hamsters. Biol Reprod 14: 362-369, 1976.


69. Takasaki, Y. Studies on brain lesion by administration of monosodium L-glutamate to mice. I. Brain lesions in infant mice caused by administration of monosodium L-glutamate. Toxicology9: 293-305, 1978.

70. Holzwarth-McBride, M.A., Hurst, E.M., and Knigge, K.M. Monosodium glutamate induced lesions of the arcuate nucleus. I. Endocrine deficiency and ultrastructure of the median eminence. Anat Rec 186: 185-196, 1976.

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73. Burde, R.M., Schainker, B., and Kayes, J. Acute effect of oral and subcutaneous administration of monosodium glutamate on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice and rats. Nature(Lond) 233: 58-60, 1971.

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77. Robinzon, B., Snapir, N., and Perek, M. Age dependent sensitivity to monosodium glutamate inducing brain damage in the chicken. Poult Sci 53: 1539-1942, 1974.

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84. Takasaki, Y. Protective effect of mono- and disaccharides on glutamate-induced brain damage in mice. Toxicol Lett4: 205-210, 1979.

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