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Obesity

In 1969, Olney (143) found hypothalamic lesions, and described stunted skeletal development, obesity, and female sterility, as well as a spate of observed pathological changes found in several brain regions associated with endocrine function in maturing mice which had been given monosodium glutamic acid as neonates.  Longitudinal studies, including feeding studies, in which neonatal/infant animals were given doses of monosodium glutamate and then observed over a period of months or years before being sacrificed for brain examination, repeatedly supported Olney's early findings.  By the early 1980s, evidence of monosodium glutamate induced brain lesions was so well established that researchers interested in brain function and/or development of drugs with which to treat disease conditions in which glutamic acid played a role began to use monosodium glutamate as an ablative tool with which to kill selected brain cells.

Today, Americans are expressing great concern about gross obesity. Overeating, inadequate diet, junk food, lack of exercise, psychological problems, genetics, and bad parenting have all been offered as reasons underlying gross obesity.  But never mentioned are the glutamic acid in monosodium glutamate and the aspartic acid found in aspartame that are known to cause gross obesity in laboratory animals.  Glutamic acid and aspartic acid are structural analogs which load on the same receptors in the brain and cause identical brain lesions and neuroendocrine disorders. They also have been know to act in an additive fashion.

There can be no question that processed free glutamic acid (MSG) causes brain damage and subsequent neuroendocrine disorders, including obesity in laboratory animals. Studies have demonstrated that free glutamic acid (including processed free glutamic acid [MSG]) can cross the placenta during pregnancy,(A-B) can cross the blood brain barrier in an unregulated manner during development, and can pass through the five circumventricular organs, which are "leaky" at best at any stage of life.(C-E)  Moreover, the blood brain barrier is easily damaged by fever, stroke, trauma to the head, seizures, ingestion of processed free glutamic acid, and the normal process of aging.(E-F)  It is generally accepted that, given the lack of full development of the blood-brain barriers in some infants and children, the young are particularly at risk from ingestion of MSG.

There can be no question that in the United States, children in utero, newborns, infants, and children are exposed to ever increasing amounts of MSG.

In utero, children can receive MSG through their mothers' diets.(A-B)

As neonates they receive MSG through their mothers' milk if their mothers are consuming MSG (which can hardly be avoided if mother is eating processed foods) or through their infant formula which all has MSG in it.  The greatest amounts of MSG in infant formula will be found in hypoallergenic formulas--which are typically soy based.

Cantani, A; Micera, M.Immunogenicity of hydrolysate formulas in children
(part 1). Analysis of 202 reactions.
Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, 2000 Sep-Oct,
10(5):261-76.

Abstract: Cow's milk protein hydrolyzed formulas appeared in the 1940s with
the aim of decreasing or eliminating the allergenicity of cow's milk proteins,
in addition to reducing the risk of sensitization. In recent years, the
so-called "hypoallergenic" formulas have been developed. The use of such
hydrolyzed formulas is based on the premise that predigested proteins, when
fed as amino acids and peptides, provide nutrients in a nonantigenic form.
Thus, protein hydrolyzed formulas have been classified as hypoallergenic.
These formulas are processed by heat and enzymatic hydrolysis, and the
conformational and sequential structures are more or less changed. The
formulas contain peptides of lower molecular weight than the native protein
source, which are thought to be less immunogenic. Hydrolyzed formulas appear
to be nutritionally adequate and infants generally gain weight until they
refuse the formula because of its bad taste. However, caution should be taken
when such formulas are given for prolonged periods since no data are available
on nutritional assessment of infants exclusively fed hydrolyzed formulas for
several months. In this paper we report and discuss more than 202 reactions to
different hydrolyzed formulas, including cases of anaphylactic shock and
apparent life-threatening events. The cross-reactivity between different
hydrolyzed formulas and cow's milk proteins, and the potential immunogenicity
of such formulas are discussed. We conclude that none of the hydrolyzed
formulas are nonallergenic, both for allergic children and for high-risk
babies. Moreover, we suggest that double-blind placebo-controlled food
challenge studies in larger cohorts of babies evaluated with well-defined and
well-validated diagnostic methods may establish a more reliable prevalence of
allergy to hydrolyzed formulas.

As neonates, children are also introduced to the MSG through vaccines.  All live virus vaccines, and some, if not all of the others, contain MSG.  The MSG in vaccines will typically be contained in one or more of the ingredients that give no clue that they contain MSG.

Until 1978, children were treated to MSG in those little bottles of food called "baby food."  After 10 years of pressure from concerned scientists and parents, the MSG was "voluntarily"  removed from "baby food" by its manufacturers.  But on January 7, 1998, the EPA approved using processed free glutamic acid (MSG) in pesticide products and plant growth enhancers--and fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, and vegetables treated with those products can now be used in baby food without disclosing that they have been treated with a product that contains MSG.

Many fast foods, low-fat and no-fat foods, and processed foods contain processed free glutamic acid (MSG). Canned soups sold by large corporations and things like canned spaghetti or noodles are generally loaded with MSG, too.  The things our children get in their school lunches are highly questionable -- possibly with more MSG in them if  lunches are supplied by the schools.

Footnotes

A. Frieder, B, and Grimm, VE. Prenatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment given through the mother's diet causes behavioral deficits in rat offspring. Intern J Neurosci. 23:117-126,1984.

B. Gao, J, Wu, J, Zhao, XN, Zhang, WN, Zhang, YY, Zhang, ZX. [Transplacental neurotoxic effects of monosodium glutamate on structures and functions of specific brain areas of filial mice.] Sheng Li Hsueh Pao Acta Physiologica Sinica. 46:44-51,1994.

C. Price MT, Olney JW, Lowry OH, Buchsbaum S. Uptake of exogenous glutamate and aspartate by circumventricular organs but not other regions of brain. J. Neurochem. 36:1774-1780,1981.

D. Broadwell RD, Sofroniew MV. Serum proteins bypass the blood-brain fluid barriers for extracellular entry to the central nervous system. Exp Neurol. 120:245-263,1993.

E. Blaylock, RL. Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills. Santa Fe, NM: Health Press; 1994.

F. Nemeroff, C.B., and Crisley, F.D. Monosodium L-glutamate induced convulsions: temporary alteration in blood-brain barrier permeability to plasma proteins. Environ Physiol Biochem 5: 389-395, 1975.

Some of us who are sensitive to the neurotoxic amino acids: glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and L-cysteine, have, for years, fought the power of the glutamate and aspartame industries.  Those of us who are sensitive to processed free glutamic acid (MSG) have asked only that MSG not be hidden in food, drugs, cosmetics, and dietary supplements.  We have asked and we have seen how our requests are handled.  We have seen how industry drives the United States government and controls the media.  It would appear that because Ajinomoto Co., Inc., the worlds largest producer of processed free glutamic acid and the food ingredient "monosodium glutamate" is spending millions of dollars yearly in what appears to us to be an effort to deceive people around the world into believing that MSG is "safe," there will be no one in any legislature, at the FDA, at the National Institutes of Health, or at the Center for Disease Control; and there will be no official of the American Medical Association or the American Dietetic Association or the press who will suggest that MSG might be at the root of, or even contribute to, gross obesity.

When this page was first written, we accessed the Medline data base through the National Library of Medicine on the Internet (www.pubmed.gov).  We asked for studies using the key words "obesity AND monosodium glutamate," and were given back 143 references (1-143).  They are listed below.  You will note that studies demonstrating that MSG causes brain lesions and subsequent obesity were done, by and large, by the early 1980s.  Later studies used glutamic acid as a research tool.  Abstracts of "MSG lesions decrease body mass of suckling-age rats by attenuating circadian decreases of energy expenditure" and "Late effects of postnatal administration of  monosodium glutamate on insulin action in adult rats" are included here by way of illustration. You will note that they are all animal studies.  In the United States, we don't generally experiment with toxic substances on humans.

To review Medline obesity studies yourself, go to www.pubmed.gov and type in the words "monosodium glutamate, obesity."  You might find two studies published in 2005 particularly interesting: "Obesity, voracity, and short stature: the impact of glutamate on the regulation of appetite," and "[Effect of monosodium glutamate given orally on appetite control (a new theory for the obesity epidemic)]."
 

REFERENCES from Medline (at www.pubmed.gov) for "Obesity and Monosodium Glutamate"

1:  Nakayama D, Magami Y, Azuma T, Inokuchi H, Furukawa M, Ohyashiki J, Yoshimoto T, Mizuguchi J, Moriyasu F, Kawai K, Hattori T. Related Articles, Links

Turnover of acinar and islet cells in the pancreas of monosodium glutamate-treated obese mice.
Obes Res. 2003 Jan;11(1):87-94.
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2:  Guimaraes RB, Telles MM, Coelho VB, Mori RC, Nascimento CM, Ribeiro EB. Related Articles, Links

Adrenalectomy abolishes the food-induced hypothalamic serotonin release in both normal and monosodium glutamate-obese rats.
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VGF is required for obesity induced by diet, gold thioglucose treatment, and agouti and is differentially regulated in pro-opiomelanocortin- and neuropeptide Y-containing arcuate neurons in response to fasting.
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4:  de Carvalho Papa P, Vargas AM, da Silva JL, Nunes MT, Machado UF. Related Articles, Links

GLUT4 protein is differently modulated during development of obesity in monosodium glutamate-treated mice.
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5:  Schoelch C, Hubschle T, Schmidt I, Nuesslein-Hildesheim B. Related Articles, Links

MSG lesions decrease body mass of suckling-age rats by attenuating circadian decreases of energy expenditure.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Sep;283(3):E604-11.
PMID: 12169455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6:  Kaufhold A, Nigam PK, Dhir RN, Shapiro BH. Related Articles, Links

Prevention of latently expressed CYP2C11, CYP3A2, and growth hormone defects in neonatally monosodium glutamate-treated male rats by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):490-6.
PMID: 12130706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7:  Balbo SL, Mathias PC, Bonfleur ML, Alves HF, Siroti FJ, Monteiro OG, Ribeiro FB, Souza AC. Related Articles, Links

Vagotomy reduces obesity in MSG-treated rats.
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8:  de Mello MA, de Souza CT, Braga LR, dos Santos JW, Ribeiro IA, Gobatto CA. Related Articles, Links

Glucose tolerance and insulin action in monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese exercise-trained rats.
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PMID: 11758736 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9:  Pinterova L, Zelezna B, Fickova M, Macho L, Krizanova O, Jezova D, Zorad S. Related Articles, Links

Elevated AT1 receptor protein but lower angiotensin II-binding in adipose tissue of rats with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.
Horm Metab Res. 2001 Dec;33(12):708-12.
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10:  Larsen PJ, Fledelius C, Knudsen LB, Tang-Christensen M. Related Articles, Links

Systemic administration of the long-acting GLP-1 derivative NN2211 induces lasting and reversible weight loss in both normal and obese rats.
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11:  Racek L, Lenhardt L, Mozes S. Related Articles, Links

Effect of fasting and refeeding on duodenal alkaline phosphatase activity in monosodium glutamate obese rats.
Physiol Res. 2001;50(4):365-72.
PMID: 11551142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12:  Lucinei Balbo S, Gravena C, Bonfleur ML, de Freitas Mathias PC. Related Articles, Links

Insulin secretion and acetylcholinesterase activity in monosodium l-glutamate-induced obese mice.
Horm Res. 2000;54(4):186-91.
PMID: 11416236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13:  Dolnikoff M, Martin-Hidalgo A, Machado UF, Lima FB, Herrera E. Related Articles, Links

Decreased lipolysis and enhanced glycerol and glucose utilization by adipose tissue prior to development of obesity in monosodium glutamate (MSG) treated-rats.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Mar;25(3):426-33.
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14:  Imai T, Jiang M, Chambon P, Metzger D. Related Articles, Links

Impaired adipogenesis and lipolysis in the mouse upon selective ablation of the retinoid X receptor alpha mediated by a tamoxifen-inducible chimeric Cre recombinase (Cre-ERT2) in adipocytes.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jan 2;98(1):224-8.
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15:  Nakagawa T, Ukai K, Ohyama T, Gomita Y, Okamura H. Related Articles, Links

Effects of chronic administration of sibutramine on body weight, food intake and motor activity in neonatally monosodium glutamate-treated obese female rats: relationship of antiobesity effect with monoamines.
Exp Anim. 2000 Oct;49(4):239-49.
PMID: 11109549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16:  Martinkova A, Lenhardt L, Mozes S. Related Articles, Links

Effect of neonatal MSG treatment on day-night alkaline phosphatase activity in the rat duodenum.
Physiol Res. 2000;49(3):339-45.
PMID: 11043921 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17:  Iwase M, Ichikawa K, Tashiro K, Iino K, Shinohara N, Ibayashi S, Yoshinari M, Fujishima M. Related Articles, Links

Effects of monosodium glutamate-induced obesity in spontaneously hypertensive rats vs. Wistar Kyoto rats: serum leptin and blood flow to brown adipose tissue.
Hypertens Res. 2000 Sep;23(5):503-10.
PMID: 11016806 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18:  Mozes S, Lenhardt L, Martinkova A. Related Articles, Links

Alkaline phosphatase activity of duodenal enterocytes after neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate to rats.
Physiol Res. 2000;49(2):269-77.
PMID: 10984094 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19:  Macho L, Fickova M, Jezova, Zorad S. Related Articles, Links

Late effects of postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate on insulin action in adult rats.
Physiol Res. 2000;49 Suppl 1:S79-85.
PMID: 10984075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20:  Miskowiak B, Kesa B, Limanowski A, Partyka M, Filipiak B. Related Articles, Links

Long-term effect of neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment on reproductive system of the female rat.
Folia Morphol (Warsz). 1999;58(2):105-13.
PMID: 10598403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21:  Kim YW, Kim JY, Lee SK. Related Articles, Links

Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats.
J Korean Med Sci. 1999 Oct;14(5):539-45.
PMID: 10576150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22:  Mori RC, Guimaraes RB, Nascimento CM, Ribeiro EB. Related Articles, Links

Lateral hypothalamic serotonergic responsiveness to food intake in rat obesity as measured by microdialysis.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;77(4):286-92.
PMID: 10535677 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23:  Liu YF, Cai DF, Chen XH. Related Articles, Links

[Effect of zuogui wan on the contents of hypothalamic monoaminic transmitters and body weight in rats treated with monosodium glutamate neonatally]
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1997 Nov;17(11):673-5. Chinese.
PMID: 10322848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24:  Morris MJ, Tortelli CF, Filippis A, Proietto J. Related Articles, Links

Reduced BAT function as a mechanism for obesity in the hypophagic, neuropeptide Y deficient monosodium glutamate-treated rat.
Regul Pept. 1998 Sep 25;75-76:441-7.
PMID: 9802441 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25:  Bergen HT, Mizuno TM, Taylor J, Mobbs CV. Related Articles, Links

Hyperphagia and weight gain after gold-thioglucose: relation to hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin.
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26:  Palmiter RD, Erickson JC, Hollopeter G, Baraban SC, Schwartz MW. Related Articles, Links

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PMID: 9769708 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27:  Tsukahara F, Uchida Y, Ohba K, Ogawa A, Yoshioka T, Muraki T. Related Articles, Links

The effect of acute cold exposure and norepinephrine on uncoupling protein gene expression in brown adipose tissue of monosodium glutamate-obese mice.
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PMID: 9717772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28:  Hollopeter G, Erickson JC, Palmiter RD. Related Articles, Links

Role of neuropeptide Y in diet-, chemical- and genetic-induced obesity of mice.
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PMID: 9665670 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29:  Hriscu M, Saulea G, Vidrascu N, Baciu I. Related Articles, Links

Effects of monosodium glutamate on blood neutrophils phagocytic activity and phagocytic response in mice.
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PMID: 9653813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30:  Iwase M, Yamamoto M, Iino K, Ichikawa K, Shinohara N, Yoshinari M, Fujishima M. Related Articles, Links

Obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats: an animal model of multiple risk factors.
Hypertens Res. 1998 Mar;21(1):1-6.
PMID: 9582101 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31:  Yoshida T, Umekawa T, Kumamoto K, Sakane N, Kogure A, Kondo M, Wakabayashi Y, Kawada T, Nagase I, Saito M. Related Articles, Links

beta 3-Adrenergic agonist induces a functionally active uncoupling protein in fat and slow-twitch muscle fibers.
Am J Physiol. 1998 Mar;274(3 Pt 1):E469-75.
PMID: 9530130 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32:  Papa PC, Seraphim PM, Machado UF. Related Articles, Links

Loss of weight restores GLUT 4 content in insulin-sensitive tissues of monosodium glutamate-treated obese mice.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Nov;21(11):1065-70.
PMID: 9368832 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33:  Zorad S, Macho L, Jezova D, Fickova M. Related Articles, Links

Partial characterization of insulin resistance in adipose tissue of monosodium glutamate-induced obese rats.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Sep 20;827:541-5. No abstract available.
PMID: 9329787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34:  Ribeiro EB, do Nascimento CM, Andrade IS, Hirata AE, Dolnikoff MS. Related Articles, Links

Hormonal and metabolic adaptations to fasting in monosodium glutamate-obese rats.
J Comp Physiol [B]. 1997 Aug;167(6):430-7.
PMID: 9286091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35:  Dawson R, Pelleymounter MA, Millard WJ, Liu S, Eppler B. Related Articles, Links

Attenuation of leptin-mediated effects by monosodium glutamate-induced arcuate nucleus damage.
Am J Physiol. 1997 Jul;273(1 Pt 1):E202-6.
PMID: 9252497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36:  Hirata AE, Andrade IS, Vaskevicius P, Dolnikoff MS. Related Articles, Links

Monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance to peripheral glucose uptake.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 1997 May;30(5):671-4.
PMID: 9283637 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37:  Popova IuP, Kondrashov SIu, Malikova NA, Aleshko-Ozhevskii, Sheviakova LV, Makhova NN, Mazo VK, Galkin AA, Shirina LI. Related Articles, Links

[Lipid peroxidation and various parameters of mineral metabolism in patients with alimentary obesity during therapy with monosodium glutamate]
Vopr Pitan. 1997;(3):8-10. Russian.
PMID: 9289922 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38:  Spurlock ME, Hahn KJ, Miner JL. Related Articles, Links

Regulation of adipsin and body composition in the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mouse.
Physiol Behav. 1996 Nov;60(5):1217-21.
PMID: 8916174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39:  Otoya RE, Seltzer AM, Donoso AO. Related Articles, Links

Decrease of (+)-3-[125I]MK-801 binding to NMDA brain receptors revealed at puberty in rats treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996 Sep 2;95(2):149-56.
PMID: 8874889 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40:  Caputo FA, Ali SF, Wolff GL, Scallet AC. Related Articles, Links

Neonatal MSG reduces hypothalamic DA, beta-endorphin, and delays weight gain in genetically obese (A viable yellow/alpha) mice.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996 Feb;53(2):425-32.
PMID: 8808153 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41:  Frederich RC, Hamann A, Anderson S, Lollmann B, Lowell BB, Flier JS. Related Articles, Links

Leptin levels reflect body lipid content in mice: evidence for diet-induced resistance to leptin action.
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PMID: 7489415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42:  Yoshida T, Sakane N, Wakabayashi Y, Umekawa T, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

Thermogenic, anti-obesity effects of bofu-tsusho-san in MSG-obese mice.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995 Oct;19(10):717-22.
PMID: 8589765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43:  Frederich RC, Lollmann B, Hamann A, Napolitano-Rosen A, Kahn BB, Lowell BB, Flier JS. Related Articles, Links

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45:  Guengerich FP. Related Articles, Links

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46:  Yoshida T, Yoshioka K, Sakane N, Umekawa T, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

Probucol prevents the progression of fatty liver in MSG obese mice.
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48:  Kubota A, Nakagawa Y, Igarashi Y. Related Articles, Links

Studies of gene expression in liver of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3 and growth hormone (GH) receptor/GH binding protein in rats treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate.
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49:  Yoshida T, Sakane N, Wakabayashi Y, Umekawa T, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

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50:  Pampori NA, Shapiro BH. Related Articles, Links

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Neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment increases epididymal adipose tissue sensitivity to insulin in three-month old rats.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 1994 May;27(5):1249-53.
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52:  Yoshida T, Sakane N, Wakabayashi Y, Yoshioka K, Umekawa T, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

The alpha/beta-adrenergic receptor blocker arotinolol activates the thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in monosodium-L-glutamate-induced obese mice.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994 May;18(5):339-43.
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53:  Machado UF, Shimizu I, Saito M. Related Articles, Links

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54:  Pampori NA, Shapiro BH. Related Articles, Links

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55:  Zhang WM, Kuchar S, Mozes S. Related Articles, Links

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Brain Res Bull. 1994;35(4):383-5.
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56:  Miskowiak B, Partyka M. Related Articles, Links

Effects of neonatal treatment with MSG (monosodium glutamate) on hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis in adult male rats.
Histol Histopathol. 1993 Oct;8(4):731-4.
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57:  Machado UF, Shimizu Y, Saito M. Related Articles, Links

Decreased glucose transporter (GLUT 4) content in insulin-sensitive tissues of obese aurothioglucose- and monosodium glutamate-treated mice.
Horm Metab Res. 1993 Sep;25(9):462-5.
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58:  Yamamoto T, Matsuo S, Ueshima Y, Inoue F, Kinugasa A, Sawada T. Related Articles, Links

Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I are reduced at one week of age in monosodium L-glutamate-treated mice.
Endocr J. 1993 Aug;40(4):461-5.
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59:  Ross SR, Graves RA, Spiegelman BM. Related Articles, Links

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60:  Shapiro BH, Pampori NA, Ram PA, Waxman DJ. Related Articles, Links

Irreversible suppression of growth hormone-dependent cytochrome P450 2C11 in adult rats neonatally treated with monosodium glutamate.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 May;265(2):979-84.
PMID: 8496838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61:  Sun YM, Ho ML, Hsu HK, Peng MT. Related Articles, Links

[The effects of neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment on sex-odor attractivity and approach behavior in rats]
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PMID: 8320757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62:  Miskowiak B, Limanowski A, Partyka M. Related Articles, Links

[Effect of perinatal administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the reproductive system of the male rat]
Endokrynol Pol. 1993;44(4):497-505. Polish.
PMID: 8055818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63:  Hotamisligil GS, Shargill NS, Spiegelman BM. Related Articles, Links

Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance.
Science. 1993 Jan 1;259(5091):87-91.
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64:  Leigh FS, Kaufman LN, Young JB. Related Articles, Links

Diminished epinephrine excretion in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice and monosodium glutamate-treated rats.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992 Aug;16(8):597-604.
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65:  Betran MA, Estornell E, Barber T, Cabo J. Related Articles, Links

Nitrogen metabolism in obesity induced by monosodium-L-glutamate in rats.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992 Aug;16(8):555-64.
PMID: 1326485 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66:  Ochi M, Furukawa H, Yoshioka H, Sawada T, Kusunoki T, Hattori T. Related Articles, Links

Adipocyte dynamics in hypothalamic obese mice during food deprivation and refeeding.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1991 Oct;37(5):479-91.
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67:  Fisher KN, Turner RA, Pineault G, Kleim J, Saari MJ. Related Articles, Links

The postweaning housing environment determines expression of learning deficit associated with neonatal monosodium glutamate (M.S.G.).
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1991 Sep-Oct;13(5):507-13.
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68:  Nascimento Curi CM, Marmo MR, Egami M, Ribeiro EB, Andrade IS, Dolnikoff MS. Related Articles, Links

Effect of monosodium glutamate treatment during neonatal development on lipogenesis rate and lipoprotein lipase activity in adult rats.
Biochem Int. 1991 Jul;24(5):927-35.
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69:  Stanton LW, Ponte PA, Coleman RT, Snyder MA. Related Articles, Links

Expression of CA III in rodent models of obesity.
Mol Endocrinol. 1991 Jun;5(6):860-6.
PMID: 1922100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70:  Maiter D, Underwood LE, Martin JB, Koenig JI. Related Articles, Links

Neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate: effects of prolonged growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone deficiency on pulsatile GH secretion and growth in female rats.
Endocrinology. 1991 Feb;128(2):1100-6.
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71:  Yoshioka K, Yoshida T, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

Reduced brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and metabolic rate in pre-obese mice treated with monosodium-L-glutamate.
Endocrinol Jpn. 1991 Feb;38(1):75-9.
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72:  Remke H, Wilsdorf A, Rehorek A. Related Articles, Links

Changes of ATPase activities in erythrocytes of rats with hypothalamic obesity.
Exp Pathol. 1991;43(1-2):67-73.
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73:  Lowell BB, Flier JS. Related Articles, Links

Differentiation dependent biphasic regulation of adipsin gene expression by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 in 3T3-F442A adipocytes.
Endocrinology. 1990 Dec;127(6):2898-906.
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74:  Yoshida T, Yoshioka K, Hiraoka N, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

Effect of nicotine on norepinephrine turnover and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and metabolic rate in MSG obese mice.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1990 Apr;36(2):123-30.
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75:  Lowell BB, Napolitano A, Usher P, Dulloo AG, Rosen BS, Spiegelman BM, Flier JS. Related Articles, Links

Reduced adipsin expression in murine obesity: effect of age and treatment with the sympathomimetic-thermogenic drug mixture ephedrine and caffeine.
Endocrinology. 1990 Mar;126(3):1514-20.
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76:  Shapiro BH, MacLeod JN, Pampori NA, Morrissey JJ, Lapenson DP, Waxman DJ. Related Articles, Links

Signalling elements in the ultradian rhythm of circulating growth hormone regulating expression of sex-dependent forms of hepatic cytochrome P450.
Endocrinology. 1989 Dec;125(6):2935-44.
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77:  Platt KA, Min HY, Ross SR, Spiegelman BM. Related Articles, Links

Obesity-linked regulation of the adipsin gene promoter in transgenic mice.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct;86(19):7490-4.
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78:  Tokuyama K, Himms-Hagen J. Related Articles, Links

Adrenalectomy prevents obesity in glutamate-treated mice.
Am J Physiol. 1989 Aug;257(2 Pt 1):E139-44.
PMID: 2764098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

79:  Yoshida T, Yoshioka K, Wakabayashi Y, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

Effects of cigarette smoke on norepinephrine turnover and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue in MSG-induced obese mice.
Endocrinol Jpn. 1989 Aug;36(4):537-44.
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80:  Brereton IM, Doddrell DM, Oakenfull SM, Moss D, Irving MG. Related Articles, Links

The use of in vivo 2H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the effects of obesity and diabetes mellitus upon lipid metabolism in mice.
NMR Biomed. 1989 Jul;2(2):55-60.
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81:  Rosen BS, Cook KS, Yaglom J, Groves DL, Volanakis JE, Damm D, White T, Spiegelman BM. Related Articles, Links

Adipsin and complement factor D activity: an immune-related defect in obesity.
Science. 1989 Jun 23;244(4911):1483-7.
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82:  Ahluwalia P, Malik VB. Related Articles, Links

Effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on serum lipids, blood glucose and cholesterol in adult male mice.
Toxicol Lett. 1989 Feb;45(2-3):195-8.
PMID: 2919400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83:  Spiegelman BM, Lowell B, Napolitano A, Dubuc P, Barton D, Francke U, Groves DL, Cook KS, Flier JS. Related Articles, Links

Adrenal glucocorticoids regulate adipsin gene expression in genetically obese mice.
J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 25;264(3):1811-5.
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84:  Wilsdorf A, Remke H, Muller F. Related Articles, Links

[Glucose utilization in adipose tissue of rats in chronic somatotropin deficiency]
Biomed Biochim Acta. 1989;48(1):51-6. German.
PMID: 2673226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

85:  Yoshioka K, Yoshida T, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

Effect of acute cold-exposure on norepinephrine turnover and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and metabolic rate in MSG-induced obese mice.
Jpn J Physiol. 1989;39(6):957-62.
PMID: 2632905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86:  Ribeiro EB, Marmo MR, Andrade IS, Dolnikoff MS. Related Articles, Links

Effect of fasting on monosodium glutamate-obese rats.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 1989;22(7):917-21.
PMID: 2629958 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87:  Nonaka T, Higuchi N, Arai T, Oki Y. Related Articles, Links

Effects of castration and androgen on glycosuria appearance in the diabetic KK mice induced by monosodium glutamate administration.
Nippon Juigaku Zasshi. 1988 Oct;50(5):1121-3. No abstract available.
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88:  Magarinos AM, Estivariz F, Morado MI, De Nicola AF. Related Articles, Links

Regulation of the central nervous system-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats after neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate.
Neuroendocrinology. 1988 Aug;48(2):105-11.
PMID: 2851747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89:  Nishioka H, Yoshida T, Yoshioka K, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

[Studies on the regulation mechanism for sympathetic nervous system activity--using hypothalamic obese mice]
Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. 1988 Jul 20;64(7):554-63. Japanese.
PMID: 3146514 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90:  Ochi M, Fukuhara K, Sawada T, Hattori T, Kusunoki T. Related Articles, Links

Development of the epididymal adipose tissue in monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1988 Jun;34(3):317-26.
PMID: 3183780 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91:  Ochi M, Sawada T, Kusunoki T, Hattori T. Related Articles, Links

Morphology and cell dynamics of adipose tissue in hypothalamic obese mice.
Am J Physiol. 1988 May;254(5 Pt 2):R740-5.
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92:  Limaos EA, Silveira VL, Dolnikoff MS. Related Articles, Links

Inflammatory edema induced by carrageenin in monosodium glutamate-treated rats.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 1988;21(4):837-9.
PMID: 3240379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93:  Remke H, Wilsdorf A, Muller F. Related Articles, Links

Development of hypothalamic obesity in growing rats.
Exp Pathol. 1988;33(4):223-32.
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94:  Nishimura O. Related Articles, Links

[Brain development in the symptomatic obesity model mouse with brain dysfunction. II. Dendritic development of neurons in the cerebral cortex]
No To Hattatsu. 1987 Nov;19(6):460-9. Japanese. No abstract available.
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95:  Flier JS, Cook KS, Usher P, Spiegelman BM. Related Articles, Links

Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity.
Science. 1987 Jul 24;237(4813):405-8.
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96:  Lorden JF, Sims JS. Related Articles, Links

Monosodium L-glutamate lesions reduce susceptibility to hypoglycemic feeding and convulsions.
Behav Brain Res. 1987 May;24(2):139-46.
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97:  Scallet AC, Faris PL, Beinfeld MC, Olney JW. Related Articles, Links

Hypothalamic neurotoxins alter the content of immunoreactive cholecystokinin in pituitary.
Brain Res. 1987 Mar 31;407(2):390-3.
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98:  Nishimura O. Related Articles, Links

[Brain development of the symptomatic obesity model mouse with brain dysfunction. I. Neuronal proliferation in the cerebellum]
No To Hattatsu. 1987;19(4):294-302. Japanese. No abstract available.
PMID: 3663404 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99:  Dulloo AG, Miller DS. Related Articles, Links

Screening of drugs for thermogenic anti-obesity properties: antidepressants.
Ann Nutr Metab. 1987;31(2):69-80.
PMID: 3592617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

100:  Rehorek A, Kerecsen L, Muller F. Related Articles, Links

Measurement of tissue catecholamines of obese rats by liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.
Biomed Biochim Acta. 1987;46(11):823-7.
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101:  Lorden JF, Caudle A. Related Articles, Links

Behavioral and endocrinological effects of single injections of monosodium glutamate in the mouse.
Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1986 Sep-Oct;8(5):509-19.
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102:  Shapiro BH, Albucher RC, MacLeod JN, Bitar MS. Related Articles, Links

Normal levels of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in neonatally induced, growth hormone-deficient adult male and female rats.
Drug Metab Dispos. 1986 Sep-Oct;14(5):585-9.
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103:  Hamaoka K, Kusunoki T. Related Articles, Links

Morphological and cell proliferative study on the growth of visceral organs in monosodium L-glutamate-treated obese mice.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1986 Aug;32(4):395-411.
PMID: 3806254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

104:  Clough RW, Aravich PF, Sladek CD. Related Articles, Links

Monosodium glutamate neurotoxicity: a sex-specific impairment of blood pressure but not vasopressin in developing rats.
Brain Res Bull. 1986 Jul;17(1):51-8.
PMID: 3756544 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105:  Nakai T, Tamai T, Takai H, Hayashi S, Fujiwara R, Miyabo S. Related Articles, Links

Decreased ketonaemia in the monosodium glutamate-induced obese rats.
Life Sci. 1986 Jun 2;38(22):2009-13.
PMID: 3713435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

106:  Scallet AC, Olney JW. Related Articles, Links

Components of hypothalamic obesity: bipiperidyl-mustard lesions add hyperphagia to monosodium glutamate-induced hyperinsulinemia.
Brain Res. 1986 May 28;374(2):380-4.
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107:  Dulloo AG, Miller DS. Related Articles, Links

The effect of parasympathetic drugs on energy expenditure: relevance to the autonomic hypothesis.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1986 May;64(5):586-91.
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108:  Dawson R Jr, Callahan MF, Annau Z. Related Articles, Links

Hypothalamic monoamine metabolism in mice: evaluation of drug challenges and neurotoxic insult.
Pharmacology. 1986;32(1):25-37.
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109:  Nakajima H, Tochino Y, Fujino-Kurihara H, Yamada K, Gomi M, Tajima K, Kanaya T, Miyazaki A, Miyagawa J, Hanafusa T, et al. Related Articles, Links

Decreased incidence of diabetes mellitus by monosodium glutamate in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse.
Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1985 Nov;50(2):251-7.
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110:  Moss D, Ma A, Cameron DP. Related Articles, Links

Defective thermoregulatory thermogenesis in monosodium glutamate-induced obesity in mice.
Metabolism. 1985 Jul;34(7):626-30.
PMID: 4010523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

111:  Yoshida T, Nishioka H, Nakamura Y, Kanatsuna T, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

Reduced norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue of pre-obese mice treated with monosodium-L-glutamate.
Life Sci. 1985 Mar 11;36(10):931-8.
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112:  DePaolo LV, Steger RW. Related Articles, Links

Alterations in immunoreactive somatostatin levels in hypothalamic and gastroenteropancreatic tissue as a consequence of neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate.
Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1985 Mar;178(3):419-25.
PMID: 2858103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

113:  Yoshida T, Nishioka H, Nakamura Y, Kondo M. Related Articles, Links

Reduced norepinephrine turnover in mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.
Metabolism. 1984 Nov;33(11):1060-3.
PMID: 6493048 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

114:  Duloo AG, Miller DS. Related Articles, Links

Unimpaired thermogenic response to noradrenaline in genetic (ob/ob) and hypothalamic (MSG) obese mice.
Biosci Rep. 1984 Apr;4(4):343-9.
PMID: 6733259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
____________________________

115:  Frieder B, Grimm VE. Related Articles, Links

Prenatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment given through the mother's diet causes behavioral deficits in rat offspring.
Int J Neurosci. 1984 Apr;23(2):117-26.
PMID: 6541212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116:  Oida K, Nakai T, Hayashi T, Miyabo S, Takeda R. Related Articles, Links

Plasma lipoproteins of monosodium glutamate-induced obese rats.
Int J Obes. 1984;8(5):385-91.
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117:  Dawson R Jr. Related Articles, Links

Naloxone-induced suppression of food intake is potentiated by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate to mice.
Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1983 Sep-Oct;5(5):523-6.
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118:  Hirose Y, Ishihara K, Terashi K, Kazumi T, Utsumi M, Morita S, Baba S. Related Articles, Links

[Hypothalamic obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rats: changes in the endocrine pancreas in the course of and after induction obesity]
Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. 1983 Feb 20;59(2):196-207. Japanese. No abstract available.
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119:  Barnhart JE, Pizzi WJ. Related Articles, Links

The Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) syndrome in mice develops independently of housing condition.
Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1982 Sep-Oct;4(5):549-56.
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120:  Romagnano MA, Pilcher WH, Bennett-Clarke C, Chafel TL, Joseph SA. Related Articles, Links

Distribution of somatostatin in the mouse brain: effects of neonatal MSG treatment.
Brain Res. 1982 Feb 25;234(2):387-98.
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121:  Dawson R Jr, Lorden JF. Related Articles, Links

Behavioral and neurochemical effects of neonatal administration of monosodium L-glutamate in mice.
J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1981 Feb;95(1):71-84.
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122:  Kanarek RB, Marks-Kaufman R. Related Articles, Links

Increased carbohydrate consumption induced by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate to rats.
Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1981 Fall;3(3):343-50.
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123:  Komeda K, Yokote M, Oki Y. Related Articles, Links

Diabetic syndrome in the Chinese hamster induced with monosodium glutamate.
Experientia. 1980 Feb 15;36(2):232-4.
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124:  Kanarek RB, Meyers J, Meade RG, Mayer J. Related Articles, Links

Juvenile-onset obesity and deficits in caloric regulation in MSG-treated rats.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1979 May;10(5):717-21.
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125:  Djazayery A, Miller DS, Stock MJ. Related Articles, Links

Energy balances in obese mice.
Nutr Metab. 1979;23(5):357-67.
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126:  Tanaka K, Shimada M, Nakao K, Kusunoki T. Related Articles, Links

Hypothalamic lesion induced by injection of monosodium glutamate in suckling period and subsequent development of obesity.
Exp Neurol. 1978 Oct;62(1):191-9. No abstract available.
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127:  Poon TK, Cameron DP. Related Articles, Links

Measurement of oxygen consumption and locomotor activity in monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.
Am J Physiol. 1978 May;234(5):E532-4.
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128:  Cameron DP, Cutbush L, Opat F. Related Articles, Links

Effects of monosodium glutamate-induced obesity in mice on carbohydrate metabolism in insulin secretion.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1978 Jan-Feb;5(1):41-51.
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129:  Nemeroff CB, Lipton MA, Kizer JS. Related Articles, Links

Models of neuroendocrine regulation: use of monosodium glutamate as an investigational tool.
Dev Neurosci. 1978;1(2):102-9.
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130:  Nikoletseas MM. Related Articles, Links

Obesity in exercising, hypophagic rats treated with monosodium glutamate.
Physiol Behav. 1977 Dec;19(6):767-73. No abstract available.
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131:  Simson EL, Gold RM, Standish LJ, Pellett PL. Related Articles, Links

Axon-sparing brain lesioning technique: the use of monosodium-L-glutamate and other amino acids.
Science. 1977 Nov 4;198(4316):515-7.
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132:  Djazayery A. Related Articles, Links

Alterations in blood glucose concentrations in obese mice.
Proc Nutr Soc. 1977 May;36(1):15A. No abstract available.
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133:  Pizzi WJ, Barnhart JE, Fanslow DJ. Related Articles, Links

Monosodium glutamate admlinistration to the newborn reduces reproductive ability in female and male mice.
Science. 1977 Apr 22;196(4288):452-4.
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134:  Nemeroff CB, Grant LD, Bissette G, Ervin GN, Harrell LE, Prange AJ Jr. Related Articles, Links

Growth, endocrinological and behavioral deficits after monosodium L-glutamate in the neonatal rat: possible involvement of arcuate dopamine neuron damage.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1977;2(2):179-96. No abstract available.
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135:  Cameron DP, Poon TK, Smith GC. Related Articles, Links

Effects of monosodium glutamate administration in the neonatal period on the diabetic syndrome in KK mice.
Diabetologia. 1976 Dec;12(6):621-6.
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136:  Pizzi WJ, Barnhart JE. Related Articles, Links

Effects of monosodium glutamate on somatic development, obesity and activity in the mouse.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1976 Nov;5(5):551-7.
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137:  Bunyan J, Murrell EA, Shah PP. Related Articles, Links

The induction of obesity in rodents by means of monosodium glutamate.
Br J Nutr. 1976 Jan;35(1):25-39.
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138:  Robinzon B, Snapir N, Perek M. Related Articles, Links

The relation between monosodium glutamate inducing brain damage, and body weight, food intake, semen production and endocrine criteria in the fowl.
Poult Sci. 1975 Jan;54(1):234-41.
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139:  Araujo PE, Mayer J. Related Articles, Links

Activity increase associated with obesity induced by monosodium glutamate in mice.
Am J Physiol. 1973 Oct;225(4):764-5. No abstract available.
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140:  Djazayery A, Miller DS. Related Articles, Links

The use of gold-thioglucose and monosodium glutamate to induce obesity in mice.
Proc Nutr Soc. 1973 May;32(1):30A-31A. No abstract available.
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141:  Matsuyama S, Oki Y, Yokoki Y. Related Articles, Links

Obesity induced by monosodium glutamate in mice.
Natl Inst Anim Health Q (Tokyo). 1973 Summer;13(2):91-101. No abstract available.
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142:  Redding TW, Schally AV, Arimura A, Wakabayashi I. Related Articles, Links

Effect of monosodium glutamate on some endocrine functions.
Neuroendocrinology. 1971;8(3):245-55. No abstract available.
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143:  Olney JW. Related Articles, Links

Brain lesions, obesity, and other disturbances in mice treated with monosodium glutamate.
Science. 1969 May 9;164(880):719-21. No abstract available.
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