truthinlabeling.org -- Home page
THE TOXICITY/SAFETY OF PROCESSED FREE GLUTAMIC ACID (MSG):
A STUDY IN SUPPRESSION OF INFORMATION
Abraham, R., Doughtery, W., Goldberg, L., and Coulston, F. (1971). The response of the hypothalamus to high doses of monosodium glutamate in mice and monkeys: cytochemistry and ultrastructural study of lysosomal changes. Exp Mol Pathol 15: 43-60.
Abraham, R., Swart, J., Goldberg, L., and Coulston, F. (1975). Electron microscopic observations of hypothalami in neonatal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) after administration of monosodium L-glutamate. Exp Mol Pathol 23: 203-213.
Altman, D.R., Fitzgerald, T. & Chiaramonte, L.T. (1994). Double-blind placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCC) of persons reporting adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). J. Allergy and Clinical Immunology Abstracts 93:303 (Abstract 844).
American Academy of Allergy and Immunology in cooperation with the International Food Information Council Foundation (1993). Understanding Food Allergy [Brochure].
American College of Allergy & Immunology (1991a). (News release).
American College of Allergy & Immunology (1991b). (Position statement).
American College of Allergy & Immunology (n.d.). (Answers to anticipated questions that may be asked by patients or reporters).
American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Scientific Affairs (1991). (Resolution 187).
Anantharaman, K. (1979). In utero and dietary administration of monosodium L-glutamate to mice: reproductive performance and development in a multigeneration study. In L.J. Filer, Jr., S. Garattini, M.R. Kare, W.A. Reynolds, and R.J. Wurtman, (Eds), Glutamic acid: advances in biochemistry and physiology. New York: Raven.
Auer, R.N. (1991). Excitotoxic mechanisms, and age-related susceptibility to brain damage in ischemia, hypoglycemia and toxic mussel poisoning. NeuroToxicology 12:541-546.
Auer, R.N. (1996) Expert Report of Roland N. Auer, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.P.C. Statement made on behalf of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the General Counsel, Food and Drug Division, Rockville, MD 20857, September 30, 1996.
Blaylock, R.L. (1994). Excitotoxins: the taste that kills. Santa Fe: Health Press.
Bunyan, J., Murrell, E.A., and Shah, P.P. (1976). The induction of obesity in rodents by means of monosodium glutamate. Br J Nutr 35: 25-29.
Chinese restaurant syndrome. (1990, January). Mayo Clinic Nutrition Letter.
Daniels, D.H., Joe, F.L. and Diachenko, G.W. (1995). Determination of free glutamic acid in a variety of foods by high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Additives and Contaminants 12:21-29.
Ebert, A.G. (1970). Chronic toxicity and teratology studies of monosodium L-glutamate and related compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 17: 274.
Ebert, A.G. (1990). Letter to Walter H. Glinsmann, M.D. Associate Director of Clinical Nutrition, Division of Nutrition, FDA. Subject: the research of Donald Kirby, M.D., Medical College of Virginia. July 13, 1990.
Ebert, A.G. (1991a). Letter to Fred R. Shank, Ph.D. Director, CFSAN, FDA. Subject: the research of Donald Kirby, M.D., Medical College of Virginia. January 2, 1991.
Ebert, A.G. (1991b). Letter to Sue Ann Anderson, R.D., Ph.D., Senior Staff Scientist, FASEB. March 22, 1991.
FDA (1991, December 9). Memorandum of Conference. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA. Visitors from the IGTC. FDA Hattan and Lin.
FDA (1992a, October 23). Memorandum of Conference. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA. Subject: the research of R.S. Geha (Harvard Medical School), A. Saxon (UCLA Medical School), R. Patterson (Northwestern University Medical School), and the IGTC.
FDA (1992b, September 4). Memorandum of Conference. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA. Visitors: Takeshi Kimura, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. FDA: Lawrence Lin.
FDA (1995, August 31). Backgrounder.
FDA in cooperation with the IFIC Food Education Foundation (1992). Food Additives [Brochure].
Federal Register (1977). March 15, 1977 (Vol 42, Number 50, Pages 14318-14319). CFR 21, Paragraph 101.35. Notice to manufacturers and users of monosodium glutamate and other hydrolyzed vegetable protein products.
Federal Register (1997a). August 8, 1997 (Volume 62, Number 153, Pages 42782-42783).
Federal Register (1997b). September 5, 1997 (Volume 62, Number 172, Pages 46882-46885).
Federal Register (1998). January 7, 1998 (Volume 63, Number 4, Pages 679-682).
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) (1980). Safety of amino acids used as dietary supplements. Bethesda, MD: Life Sciences Research Office, FASEB.
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) (1995). Analysis of adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). Bethesda, MD: Life Sciences Research Office, FASEB.
Fernstrom, J.D., Cameron, J.L., Fernstrom, M.H., McConaha, C., Weltzin, T.E., and Kaye, W.H. (1996). Short-term neuroendocrine effects of a large, oral dose of monosodium glutamate in fasting male subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 184-191.
Filer, L.J. Jr., Garattini, S., Kare, M.R., Reynolds, W.A., and Wurtman, R.J. (Eds.). (1979). Glutamic acid: advances in biochemistry and physiology. New York: Raven Press.
Filer, L. J. (1993). Public Forum: analysis of adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate. Paper presented at open meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, April 1993.
Food Allergy News (1994, December-January). Fairfax, VA: Food Allergy Network.
Food Chemical News (1990, August 6). Washington, DC: CRC Press. p.10.
Food Insight (1994, May/June). Washington, DC: International Food Information Council (IFIC) Foundation.
Food Technology (1993, September). Chicago: Institute of Food Technologists. p.34.
Garattini, S. (1979). Evaluation of the neurotoxic effects of glutamic acid. In R.J. Wurtman, & J.J. Wurtman (Eds.), Nutrition and the brain. New York: Raven Press.
Geha, R., Beiser, A., Ren, C., Patterson, R., Greenberger, P., Grammer, L.C., Ditto, A.M., Harris, K.E., Shaughnessy, M.A., Yarnold, P., Corren, J., Saxon, A. (1998). Multicenter multiphase double blind placebo controlled study to evaluate alleged reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). J. Allergy Clin Immunol Abstracts 101:S243 (Abstract 106).
Germano, P., Cohen, S.G., Hahn, B., and Metcalfe, D.D. (1991). An evaluation of clinical reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in asthmatics using a blinded, placebo-controlled challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol Abstracts 87:177 (Abstract 155).
Giacometti, T. (1979). Free and bound glutamate in natural products. In L.J. Filer, Jr., S. Garattini, M.R. Kare, W.A. Reynolds, and R.J. Wurtman, (Eds), Glutamic acid: advances in biochemistry and physiology. New York: Raven.
Gillette, R.(1972). Academy food committees: new criticism of industry ties. Science 177:1172-1175.
Glutamate Association. (1993). Letter to FASEB. April 9, 1993.
Glutamate Association - U.S. (1990). In The Encyclopedia of Associations, 24th Edition.
Goldschmiedt, M., Redfern, J.S., and Feldman, M. (1990). Food coloring and monosodium glutamate: effects on the cephalic phase of gastric acid secretion and gastrin release in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 51: 794-797.
Heywood, R., James, R.W., and Worden, A.N. (1977). The ad libitum feeding of monosodium glutamate to weanling mice. Toxicol Lett 1: 151-155.
Institute of Food Technologists' Expert Panel on Food Safety and Nutrition (1980). Monosodium glutamate, a scientific status summary. Chicago: Institute of Food Technologists.
International Food Information Council (1991) What you should know about Monosodium glutamate [Brochure].
International Food Information Council. MSG Committee/MSG Coalition. (1991). Communications Plan, July-December 1991 (As revised at 7/22/91 meeting).
International Food Information Council (1996). In The Encyclopedia of Associations, 31st Edition.
International Glutamate Technical Committee (IGTC) (1992). In The Encyclopedia of Associations, 26th Edition.
International Glutamate Technical Committee (IGTC) (1994). In National Trade and Professional Associations of the United States, 1994 Edition.
International Life Sciences Institute Australia Inc. (1990, July 31). The Scientific Facts about MSG. Symposium held at the Sydney Hilton Hotel, Sidney, Australia.
Iwata, S., Ichimura, M., Matsuzawa, Y., Takasaki, Y., and Sasaoka, M. (1979). Behavioral studies in rats treated with monosodium L-glutamate during the early states of life. Toxicol Lett 4: 345-357.
Journal of Dental Hygiene (1992). 66:(4) 158.
Kenney, R.A. (1979). Placebo-controlled studies of human reaction to oral monosodium L-glutamate. In L.J. Filer, Jr., S. Garattini, M.R. Kare, W.A. Reynolds, and R.J. Wurtman, (Eds), Glutamic acid: advances in biochemistry and physiology. New York: Raven.
Kenney, R.A., and Tidball, C.S. (1972). Human susceptibility to oral monosodium L-glutamate. A J Clin Nutr 25:140-146.
Kerr, G.R., Wu-Lee, M., El-Lozy, M., McGandy, R., and Stare, F.J. (1979). Prevalence of the "Chinese restaurant syndrome." J Am Diet Assoc 75: 29-33.
Kizer, J.S., Nemeroff, C.B., and Youngblood, W.W. (1978). Neurotoxic amino acids and structurally related analogs. Pharmacological Reviews 29: (4) 301-318.
Kwok, R.H.M. (1968). Chinese-restaurant syndrome. Letter to the editor. N Engl J Med 278: 796.
Leung, A. and Foster, S.(1996). Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. New York: Wiley.
Lucas, D.R., and Newhouse, J.P. (1957) The toxic effect of sodium L-glutamate on the inner layers of the retina. AMA Arch Ophthal 58: 193-201.
Macrae, R., Robinson, R.K., and Sadler, M.J. (Eds.). (1993). Encyclopedia of Food Science Food Technology and Nutrition (1993 ed.). London: Academic Press.
Matsuzawa, Y., Yonetani, S., Takasaki, Y., Iwata, S., and Sekine, S. (1979). Studies on reproductive endocrine function in rats treated with monosodium L-glutamate early in life. Toxicol Lett 4: 359-371.
McNutt, K. (1991, May 22). Nutrition, Communications and the Information Explosion. Presentation before the Society for Nutrition Education Metro-DC Affiliate.
Metcalfe, D.D., and Sampson, H.A., (Eds.). (1990). Workshop on Experimental Methodology for Clinical Studies of Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives. J. Allergy Clin Immunol Supplement 86:(3, part 2)421-442.
Metcalfe, D.D., Sampson, H.A., and Simon, R.A. (Eds.). (1991). Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives. Oxford: Blackwell.
Morselli, P., and Garattini, S. (1970). Monosodium-glutamate and the Chinese restaurant syndrome. Nature (London) 227: 611-612.
National Food Review (1987, Fall). p 22.
Neergaard, L. (1994, March 23). Eating MSG Associated Press wire.
Nemeroff, C.B. (1981). Monosodium glutamate-induced neurotoxicity: review of the literature and call for further research. In S.A. Miller (Ed.), Nutrition & behavior. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press.
Newman, A.J., Heywood, R., Palmer, A.K., Barry, D.H., Edwards, F.P., and Worden, A.N. (1973). The administration of monosodium L-glutamate to neonatal and pregnant rhesus monkeys. Toxicology 1: 197-204.
Olney, J.W. (1969). Brain lesions, obesity, and other disturbances in mice treated with monosodium glutamate. Science 164: 719-721.
Olney, J.W. (1993, April). Prepared statement for the public meeting (April 1993) pertaining to adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). Presented at a public meeting conducted by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), Bethesda, MD.
Olney, J.W. and Price M.T. (1978). Excitotoxic amino acids as neuroendocrine probes. In E.G. McGeer, J.W. Olney, and P.L. McGeer (Eds.), Kainic Acid as a Tool in Neurobiology. New York: Raven.
Olney, J.W. and Price, M.T. (1980). Neuroendocrine interactions of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids. Brain Research Bulletin 5: Suppl 2, 361-368.
Owen, G., Cherry, C.P., Prentice, D.E., and Worden, A.N. (1978). The feeding of diets containing up to 4% monosodium glutamate to rats for 2 years. Toxicol Lett 1: 221-226.
Pulce, C., Vial, T., Verdier, F., et al. (1992). The Chinese restaurant syndrome: a reappraisal of monosodium glutamate's causative role. Adverse Drug Reaction Toxicology Review pp.19-39.
Reif-Lehrer, L. (1977). A questionnaire study of the prevalence of Chinese restaurant syndrome. Fed Proc 36:1617-1623.
Reynolds, W.A., Butler, V., Lemkey-Johnston, N. (1976). Hypothalamic morphology following ingestion of aspartame or MSG in the neonatal rodent and primate: a preliminary report. J Toxicol environmental Health 2: 471-480.
Reynolds, W.A., Filer, L. J., and Stegink, L.D. (1991). Letter to Dr. Kenneth G. Fisher, LSRO, FASEB. May 31, 1991.
Reynolds, W.A., Lemkey-Johnston, N., Filer, L.J. Jr., and Pitkin, R.M. (1971). Monosodium glutamate: absence of hypothalamic lesions after ingestion by newborn primates. Science 172: 1342-1344.
Samuels, A. (1995). Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review. Letter to the editor. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 33: 69-78.
Schaumburg, H.H., Byck, R., Gerstl, R. and Mashman, J.H. (1969) Monosodium L-glutamate: its pharmacology and role in the Chinese restaurant syndrome. Science 163: 826-828.
Schiffman, S.S. (1991). Taste and smell perception in elderly persons. In J.E. Fielding and H.I. Frier (Eds.), Nutritional needs of the elderly. New York: Raven Press.
Schmitz, A.(1990, November/December). MSG: A cause for alarmists. InHealth pp 20-23.
Schwartz, G.R.(1988). In bad taste: the MSG syndrome. Santa Fe: Health Press.
Schwartz, K. (1996, Summer). NoMSG Messenger (Newsletter of the National Organization Mobilized to Stop Glutamate)
Scopp, A.L.(1991). MSG and hydrolyzed vegetable protein induced headache: review and case studies. Headache 31:107-110.
Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation Division of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Developed in conjunction with the International Food Information Council Foundation (1995). What You Should Know About Asthma and Food [Brochure].
Simon, R.A. and Stevenson, D.D. (1995, August 30). Letter to FDA Commissioner David A. Kessler.
Slind-Flor, V. (1993, October 25). Scientific Fraud and the Law. The National Law Journal 16(8): 1.
Stegink, L.D. (1993a, October 15). Letter to Dr. Kenneth D. Fisher, FASEB (Submission #707).
Stegink, L.D. (1993b, October 22). Letter to Dr. Kenneth D. Fisher, FASEB (Submission #709)
Stegink, L.D., Filer, L.J. Jr., Baker, G.L. and Bell, E.F.(1986). Effect of sucrose ingestion on plasma glutamate concentrations in humans administered monosodium L-glutamate. A J Clin Nutr 43:510-515.
Stegink, L.D., Reynolds, W.A., Filer, L.J. Jr., Pitkin, R.M., Boaz, D.P., and Brummel, M.C. (1975). Monosodium glutamate metabolism in the neonatal monkey. Am J Physiol 229: 246-250.
Stevenson, D.D., Simon, R.A., and Woessner, K.M. (1997, February 25). The role of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) in asthma: does it exist? Poster presentation #1670. AAAAI/AAI/CIS joint meeting. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immonology. San Francisco, CA.
Takasaki, Y., Matsuzawa, Y., Iwata, S., O'Hara, Y., Yonetani, S., and Ichimura, M. (1979a). Toxicological studies of monosodium L-glutamate in rodents: relationship between routes of administration and neurotoxicity. In L.J. Filer, Jr., S. Garattini, M.R. Kare, W.A. Reynolds, and R.J. Wurtman, (Eds), Glutamic acid: advances in biochemistry and physiology. New York: Raven.
Takasaki, Y., Sekine, S., Matsuzawa, Y., Iwata, S., and Sasaoka, M. (1979b). Effects of parenteral and oral administration of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) on somatic growth in rats. Toxicol Lett 4: 327-343.
Taliferro, P.J. (1995). Monosodium glutamate and the Chinese restaurant syndrome: a review of food additive safety. J. Environmental Health 57: 8-12.
Tarasoff, L and Kelly, M.F. (1993). Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review. Food Chem Toxic 31:1019-1035.
Taylor, S.L. (1991, July 26). Letter to FDA Dockets Management Branch.
Taylor, S.L. (1993, April). Possible adverse reactions to hydrolyzed vegetable protein. Paper submitted to the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology review panel.
Taylor, S.L. and Hefle, S.L. (1997, March 7). Letter to FDA Dockets Management Branch Re: Food Labeling Declaration of Free Glutamate in Food (Docket 96N-0244).
Tufts University Diet & Nutrition Letter (1992, February). pp 4-6.
Umami Information Center (n.d.). Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter and UMAMI: It's simply a matter of taste [Brochure]. 1-5-8 Kyobashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104, Japan.
University of California at Berkeley Wellness Letter: (1989, October). University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health.
University of California at Berkeley Wellness Letter (1996, June). University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health. p. 2.
Wolke, R.L. (1998, June 17). Food 101: The mystery of MSG. Washington Post. E1-E2.
Wood, J. (1991, August-September). Are you sensitive to harmless' MSG? Modern Maturity 34:74.
Yang, W.H., Drouin, M.A., Herbert, M., and Mao, Y. (1997). The monosodium glutamate symptom complex: Assessment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99: 757-762.
to the beginning of the article --
Go to Table 1
Go to Appendices
_____________ Truth in Labeling Campaign, P.O. Box 2532, Darien, IL 60561 email@example.com 858/481-9333 http://www.truthinlabeling.org
This page was last updated on February 10, 2001
JUST THE FACTS
RECOGNIZING OR DIAGNOSING MSG SENSITIVITY
Pinpointing MSG as a reaction trigger -- A list of the adverse reactions to MSG
THE CHEMICAL THAT TRIGGERS MSG SENSITIVITY REACTIONS
Basic facts about MSG
Truly natural glutamic acid does not contain contaminants -- Genetically engineered bacteria are used to make some MSG
A pork extract is used by Ajinomoto in some, if not all of its "monosodium glutamate."
DEALING WITH MSG SENSITIVITY
Hidden in processed food -- Hidden in infant formula -- Sprayed on growing fruits, grains, and vegetables
(There have been reports of MSG reactions to produce)
Sprayed on California wine grapes -- Proposed for spray on organic crops and for use in organic food
Hidden in food with labels that say "No Added MSG," "No MSG Added," and "No MSG"
Falsely advertised as containing no MSG
DANGERS OF USING MSG
An overview -- Selected references
Brain lesions -- Retinal degeneration -- Neuroendocrine disorders -- Human adverse reactions
The Glutamate Cascade": Addiction, stroke, epilepsy, degenerative disorders, brain trauma, neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression
MEET THE PEOPLE WHO PROFIT FROM THE SALE OF MSG
<>An expose: The Toxicity/Safety of Processed Free Glutamic Acid (MSG): A Study in Suppression of Information
Industry's defenders of the safety of MSG -- Science for sale? -- Deceptive industry practices
THE POLITICS THAT PROMOTE THE UNREGULATED USE OF MSG
The FDA's next move -- FDA Refuses to Name Ingredients that Contain MSG -- How the game is play
<>An Expose: The Toxicity/Safety of Processed Free Glutamic Acid (MSG): A Study in Suppression of Information
REGULATIONS FOR LABELING MSG?
Regulations for labeling MSG
THE FACTS: Things the "glutes" and their friends at
the EPA, FDA, and USDA don't want you to know.
CONSUMERS TELL US THAT...
CONSUMER ADVOCACY -- MAKING THINGS HAPPEN
The Truth in Labeling Campaign -- Getting involved -- Thinking of suing? -- Just the facts
COMMENTARY: FOR BETTER OR WORSE
GOVERNMENT RESOURCES ON LINE